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Latin Reference Texts

The "Required" Vocabulary in Wheelock Chapters 1-22

NOTE: Mirrored from a collection of resource materials from a University of Toronto classics course which is no longer available online.

  Verbs
First Conjugation
 

    perfect marked by -âvî
    amô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to love, like
    appellô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to call, name
    cênô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to dine
    cogitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to think, ponder, consider, plan
    conservô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to preserve, maintain (stronger form of servo)
    creô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to create
    culpô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to blame, censure
    dêlectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to delight, charm, please
    dêmonstrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to point out, show
    dêsiderô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to desîre, long for, miss
    errô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to wander, err, go astray, mistaken
    laborô,-âre, -âvî, -âtum to labor, be in distress
    laudô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to praise
    lîberô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to free, liberate
    mutô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to change, alter; exhcange
    navigô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to sail, navigate
    necô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to murder, kill
    parô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to prepâre, provide, get, obtain
    pronuntiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to proclaim, announce, declaim, pronounce
    recitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to recite, read aloud
    satiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to satisfy, sate
    servô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to preserve, save, keep, guard
    superô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to be above, surpass; overcome, conquer
    tolerô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to bear endure
    vîtô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to avoid, shun
    vocô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to call, summon

    -âvî lacking as marker of perfect
    adiuvô, adiuvâre, adiûvî, adiûtum to help, aid
    dô, dare, dedî, datum to give, offer
    iuvô, iuvâre, iûvî, iûtum to help, aid, assist, please
    stô, stare, stetî, statum to stand, stand still, firm

Second Conjugation

    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    careô, carêre, caruî, caritûrus to be without, be deprived of; be free from (+ abl.)
    contineô, continêre, continuî, contentum to hold together, contain, keep, restrain
    dêbeô, dêbêre, dêbuî, dêbitum to owe: ought, must
    dêleô, dêlêre, dêlêvî, dêlêtum to destroy, wipe out, erase
    doceô, docêre, docuî, doctum to teach
    habeô, habêre, habuî, habitum to have, hold, possess, consider, regard
    moneô, monêre, monuî, monitum to remind, advise, warn
    prohibeô, prohibêre, prohibuî, prohibitum to keep (back), prohibit, restrain
    teneô, tenêre, tenuî, tentum to hold, keep, possess; restrain
    terreô, terrêre, teruî, territum to frighten, terrify
    timeô, timêre, timuî to fear, to be afraid of, be afraid
    valeô, valêre, valuî, valitûrum to be strong, have power, be well

    perfect marked by -sî
    iubeô, iubêre, iussî, iussum to bid, order, command
    maneô, manêre, mansî, mansum to remain, stay (behind) abide, continue
    remaneô, remanêre, remansî, remansum to remain, stay (behind) abide, continue

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    moveô, movêre, môvî, môtum to move; arouse, affect
    videô, vidêre, vîdî, vîsum to see; observe, understand (pass. = videor,
    vidêrî, vîsus, vîsus sum = to be seen , seem, appear)

    semi-deponent verb
    audeô, audêre, ausus sum to dare

Third Conjugation

    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    alô, alere, aluî, altum to nourish, support, sustain, increase, cherish
    cupiô, cupere, cupîvî, cupîtum to desîre, wish, long for
    êripiô, êripere, êripuî, êreptum to snatch away, take away; rescue
    misceô, miscere, miscuî, mixtum to mix
    rapiô, rapere, rapuî, raptum to seize, snatch, carry away

    perfect marked by -sî (sometimes disguised)
    âmittô, âmittere, âmîsî, âmissum to lose, let go
    admittô, admittere, admîsî, amissum to admit, receive, let in
    dîcô, dîcere, dîxî, dictum to say tell, speak; name, call
    dîligô, dîligere, dîlêxî, dîlêctum to esteem, love
    discêdô, discêdere, discessî, discessum to go away, depart
    dûcô, dûcere, dûxî, ductum to lead; consider, regard; prolong
    fluô, fluere, flûxî, fluxum to flow
    gerô, gerere, gessî, gestum to carry, carry on, manage, conduct, perfrom
    intellegô, intellegere, intellexî, intellêctum to understand
    iungô, iungere, iûnxî, iûnctum to join
    mittô, mittere, mîsî, missum to send, let go
    neglegô, neglegere, neglêxî, neglêctum to neglect, disregard
    regô, regere, rêxî, rêctum to rule, guide direct
    scrîbô, scrîbere, scrîpsî, scrîptum to write, compose
    trahô, trahere, trâxî, tractum to draw, drag, derive
    vîvô, vîvere, vîxî, vîctum to live

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    agô, agere, êgî, actum to drive, lead, dô, act
    capiô, capere, cêpî, captum to take, capture, seize, get
    cernô, cernere, crêvî, crêtum to distinguish, discern, perceive
    êiciô, êicere, êiêcî, êiectum to throw out, drive out
    faciô, facere, fêcî, factum to make, do, accomplish
    fugiô, fugere, fûgî, fugitum to flee, hurray away, avoid, shun
    iaciô, iacere, iêcî, iactum to throw, hurl
    incipiô, incipere, incêpî, inceptum to begin
    legô, legere, lêgî, lêctum to pick out, choose; read
    relinquô, relinquere, relîquî, relictum to leave behind, leave, abandon, desert
    vincô, vincere, vîcî, victum to conquer, overcome

    perfect marked by reduplication of root
    cadô, cadere, cecidî, casum to fall
    currô, currere, cucurrî, cursum to run, rush, move quickly
    discô, discere, didicî to learn
    tangô, tangere, tetigî, tactum to touch

    no vowel-shift or tense-marker in the perfect
    dêfendô, dêfendere, dêfendî, dêfensum to ward off, defend, protect


    Fourth Conjugation



    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    audiô, audîre, audîvî, audîtum to hear, listen to
    sciô, scîre, scîvî, scîtum to know

    perfect marked by -sî
    sentiô, sentîre, sensî, sensum to feel, perceive, think, experience

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    inveniô, invenîre, invênî, inventum to come upon, find
    veniô, venîre, vênî, ventum to come

Irregular and Defective Verbs

    coepî, coepisse, coeptum began; used only in the perfect system (incipio)
    inquit he says or said after direct quotation
    ôdî, ôdisse, ôsûrum to hate
    possum, posse, potuî to be able, can could, have power
    sum, esse, fuî, futûrum to be, exist
    tollô, tollere, sustulî, sublâtum to raise, lift up; take away, remove, destroy

Nouns

First Declension

    feminine
    adulescentia, -ae youth
    amîca, -ae friend
    amîcitia, -ae friendship
    aqua, -ae water
    Asia, -ae Asia
    casa, -ae house
    causa, -ae cause, reason; case, situation (causâ, abl. with a preceeding gen., for
    the sake of, on account of)
    copia, -ae abundance, supply
    culpa, -ae fault, blame
    cûra, -ae care, attention, caution, anxiety
    discipula, -ae learner, pupil
    fâma, -ae rumor, report; fame reputation
    familia, -ae household, family
    fêmina, -ae woman
    fenestra, -ae window
    fîlia, -ae daughter
    fôrma, -ae form, shape; beauty
    fortûna, -ae fortune, luck
    Graecia, -ae Greece
    gratia, -ae gratitude, favor (gratias agere + dative = to thank)
    hôra, -ae hour, time
    îra, -ae anger
    littera, -ae a letter of the alphabet (in plur. = a letter (epistle), literature)
    medica, -ae doctor
    mora, -ae delay, pause, hesitation
    nâtûra, -ae nature
    patientia, -ae suffering, patience, endurance
    patria, -ae fatherland, native land, country
    pecûnia, -ae money
    philosophia, -ae philosphy
    poena, -ae penalty, punishment
    porta, -ae gate, entrance
    puella, -ae girl
    regîna, -ae queen
    Rôma, -ae Rome
    rosa, -ae rose
    sapientia, -ae wisdom
    scientia, -ae knowledge
    sententia, -ae feeling, thought, opinion, vote, sentence
    terra, -ae earth, ground, land, country
    Trôia, -ae Troy
    turba, -ae crowd, uproar, disturbance
    via, -ae way, road, street
    victôria, -ae victory
    vîta, -ae life; mode of life

    feminine, plural only
    dîvitiae, - ârum riches, wealth
    insidiae, - ârum ambush, plot, treachery

    masculine
    agricola, -ae farmer
    nauta, -ae sailor
    poêta, -ae poet

Second Declension

    masculine nouns in -(i)us
    animus, -î soul, spirit, mind (animi, -orum high spirits, pride, courage)
    annus, -î year
    coniûrâtus, -î conspirator
    deus, deî god (dî = nom. pl., dîs = abl. pl. : deî deîs common in later Latin)
    discipulus, -î learner, pupil
    fîlius, -ii son
    Graecus, -î a Greek
    libellus, -î little book
    locus, -î place (locî, -ôrum = passages in literature; loca, -ôrum [n.] = places)
    lûdus, -î game, sport; school
    medicus, -î doctor
    modus, -î measure, bound, limit; manner, method, mode, way
    morbus, -î disease, sickness
    mundus, -î world, universe
    numerus, -î number
    oculus, -î eye
    populus, -î the people, a people, a nation
    tyrannus, -î absolute ruler, tyrant
    vîcînus, -î neighbor
    vulgus, -î the common people, mob, rabble

    masculine nouns in -(e)r
    ager, agrî field, farm
    liber, librî book
    magister, magistrî schoolmaster, teacher, master
    puer, puerî boy
    vir, virî man, hero

    neuter nouns in -(i)um
    argûmentum, -î proof, evidence, argument
    bellum, -î war
    beneficium, -iî benefit, kindness; favor
    caelum, -î sky heaven
    consilium, -iî plan, purpose, counsel, advice, judgement, wisdom
    dônum, -î gift, present
    exitium, -iî destruction, ruin
    factum, -î deed, act, achievement
    ferrum, -î iron; sword
    iûdicium, -iî judgement, decision, opinion; trial
    officium, -iî duty, service
    otium, -iî leisure, peace
    perîculum, -î danger, risk
    principium, -iî beginning
    remedium, -iî cure, remedy
    signum, -î sign, signal, indication, seal
    studium, -iî eagerness, zeal, pursuit, study
    verbum, -î word
    vitium, -iî fault, crime, vice

Third Declension

    feminine nouns in -tâs
    cîvitâs, -tâtis state, citizenship
    cupiditâs, -tâtis desire, longing, passion, cupidity, avarice
    lîbertâs, -tâtis liberty
    probitâs, -tâtis uprightness, honesty
    vêritâs, -tâtis truth
    voluptâs, -tâtis pleasure

    feminine nouns in -io
    ratio, -tionis reckoning, account; reason, judgement, consideration

    feminine nouns in -ûs
    salûs, salûtis health, safety; greeting
    senectûs, -tûtis old age
    servitûs, -tûtis servitude, slavery
    virtûs, -tûtis manliness, courage, excellence, character, worth, virtue

    feminine nouns in -x
    lêctrix, lêctricis reader
    pâx, pâcis peace

    feminine nouns denoting female persons
    mâter, mâtris mother
    soror, sorôris sister
    uxor, uxôris wife
    virgô, virginis maiden, virgin

    miscellaneous feminine nouns
    laus, laudis praise, glory, fame
    vîs, - force; strength (in pl.) [an irregular noun: see Wheelock, pp. 89-90]

    masculine nouns in -or
    amor, amôris love
    auctor, auctôris increaser, author, originator
    labor, labôris labor, work, toil; a work, production
    scrîptor, scrîptôris author, writer
    timor, timôris fear

    masculine nouns denoting (generally) male persons
    adulêscêns. adulêscêntis young man
    Caesar, Caesaris Caesar
    frâter, frâtris brother
    fûr, fûris thief
    iûdex, iûdicis judge, juror
    pater, patris father
    rêx, rêgis king

    miscellaneous masculine nouns
    homô, hominis human being, man
    môns, montis mountain
    môs, môris habit, custom, manner; character (pl.)

    neuter nouns in -en, -inis
    carmen, carminis song, poem
    flûmen, flûminis river
    nômen, nôminis name

    neuter nouns in -us, -eris
    genus, generis origin, kind, sort, class
    scelus, sceleris evil deed, crime, sin, wickedness

    neuter nouns in -us, -oris
    corpus, corporis body, corpse
    tempus, temporis time; occasion, opportunity

    miscellaneous neuter nouns
    caput, capitis head, leader; beginning; life; heading; chapter
    iûs, iûris right, justice, law

    i-stems feminine
    ars, artis art, skill
    auris, auris ear
    gens, gentis clan, race, nation, people
    mêns, mentis mind, thought, intention
    mors, mortis death
    nâvis, nâvis ship, boat
    nûbes, nûbis cloud
    pars, partis part, share; direction
    urbs, urbis city

    masculine
    cîvis, cîvis citizen
    fînis, fînis end, limit, boudary, purpose; territory (plu.)
    hostis, hostis enemy; the enemy (plu.)
    ignis, ignis fire

    neuter
    animal, animâlis animal
    exemplar, exemplâris example, model
    mare, maris sea

Fourth Declension

    masculine
    fructus, fructûs fruit, profit, enjoyment
    metus, metûs fear, dread anxiety
    senâtus, senâtûs senate
    sensus, sensûs feeling, sense
    spiritus, spiritûs breath, breathing; spirit, soul
    versus, versûs line of verse

    feminine
    manus, manûs hand, band; handwriting

    neuter
    cornû, cornûs horn
    genû, genûs knee

Fifth Declension

    feminine
    fidês, fideî faith, trust, trustworthiness, fidelity, promise, guarantee, protection
    rês, reî thing, matter, business, affair (rês publica, reî publicae = commonwealth,
    republic)
    spês, speî hope

    masculine
    diês, diêî day

Indeclinable Nouns

    nihil nothing (+ partitive gen. = "nothing of . . ." = "no . . .")
    satis enough (+ partitive gen. = "a sufficiency of . . ." = "enough . . .")
    all infinitives

Pronouns

    Personal
    ego, meî I
    tû, tuî you (sing.)
    nôs, nostrum / nostrî we
    vôs, vestrum / vestrî you (plur.)
    is, ea, id he, she, it (also serves as a weak demonstrative, "this that,"
    especially in correlation with relative clauses)
    --, suî, sibi, sê, sê him/her/itself (reflexive 3rd person pronoun: Chapter 13)

    Demonstrative and Intensive
    hic, haec, hoc this man / woman / thing [right here] (also serves as an adjective)
    ille, illa, illud that man / woman / thing [over there] (also serves as an adjective)
    iste, ista, istud that man / woman / thing [near you / of yours], that no-good,
    rotten man / woman / thing (also serves as an adjective)
    ipse, ipsa, ipsum he himself, she herself, it itself (also serves as an adjective)
    îdem, eadem, idem the same man / woman / thing (also serves as an adjective)

    Relative and Interrogative
    quî, quae, quod who / which
    quis, quid who? / what? (adjectival form = quî, quae, quod)

    Indefinite
    quisque, quidque each person / thing

Adjectives

First and Second Declension
 

    "regular" -us, -a, -um adjectives
    acerbus, -a, -um harsh, bitter, grevious
    aequus, -a, -um level, even; calm; equal, just; favorable
    amîcus, -a, -um friendly
    antîquus, -a, -um ancient, old-time
    avârus, -a, -um greedy, avaricious
    beâtus, -a, -um happy, fortunate, blessed
    bonus, -a, -um good, kind
    caecus, -a, -um blind
    cârus, -a, -um dear
    clârus, -a, -um clear, bright; renowned, famous, illustrious
    doctus, -a, -um taught, learned, skilled
    fortûnâtus, -a, -um lucky, fortunate, happy
    Graecus, -a, -um Greek
    hûmânus, -a, -um pertaining to man, human, humane, kind, refined, cultivated
    incertus, -a, -um uncertain, doubtful
    iûcundus, -a, -um pleasant, delightful, agreeable, pleasing
    Latînus, -a, -um Latin
    longus, -a, -um long
    magnus, -a, -um large, great, important
    malus, -a, -um bad, wicked, evil
    medius, -a, -um middle; used partitively, the middle of
    multus, -a, -um sing.: much, a lot; plur.: many
    novus, -a, -um new; strange
    parvus, -a, -um small, little
    paucî, -ae, -a few, a few (plural)
    perpetuus, -a, -um perpetual, lasting, uninterrupted, continuous
    plênus, -a, -um full
    Rômânus, -a, -um Roman
    salvus, -a, -um safe, sound
    sânus, -a, -um sound, healthy, sane
    secundus, -a, -um second; favorable
    stultus, -a, -um foolish
    vêrus, -a, -um true, real, proper

    possessive adjectives
    meus, -a, -um my
    noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours
    tuus, -a, -um your (sing.)
    vester, vestra, vestrum yours (pl.)
    suus, -a, -um his/her/its/their own (reflexive poss. adj of 3rd per.)

    other 1st-2nd decl. adjectives with masc. nom. sing. in -er
    asper, aspera, asperum rough, harsh
    dexter, dextra, dextrum right, right-handed
    lîber, lîbera, lîberum free
    miser, misera, miserum wretched, miserable, unfortunate
    pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum beautiful, handsome; fine
    sinister, sinistra, sinistrum left, left-handed

    1st-2nd decl. adjectives with gen. sing. in -îus, dat. sing. in -î
    ûllus, -a, -um any
    nûllus, -a, -um not any, no, none
    ûnus, -a, um one
    sôlus, -a, -um alone, only, the only
    neuter, neutra, neutrum not either, neither
    alter, altera, alterum the other (of two), second
    uter, utra, utrum either, which (of two)
    tôtus, -a, -um whole, entire
    alius, -a, -ud (an)other

Third Declension

    adjectives with 3 nom. sing. endings
    âcer, âcris, âcre sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce
    celer, celeris, celere swift, quick, rapid

    adjectives with 2 nom. sing. endings
    brevis, -e short, small, brief
    commûnis, -e common, general
    difficilis, -e hard, difficult, troublesome
    dulcis, -e sweet, pleasant, agreeable
    facilis, -e easy, agreeable
    fortis, -e strong, brave
    levis, -e light, slight, trivial, easy
    mortâlis, -e mortal
    omnis, -e every, all

    adjectives with 1 nom. sing. ending
    fêlix, fêlicis (gen.) lucky, fortunate, happy
    ingens, ingentis (gen.) huge
    potens, potentis (gen.) able, powerful
    senex, senis (gen.) old, aged (as noun: old man)

    Indeclinable
    cardinal numbers higher than tres / tria (but note milia, milium = "thousands")


Adverbs

    of emphasis / qualification / negation
    etiam even, also
    nôn not
    quoque also, too
    tamen nevertheless, still

    of quality / quantity
    acriter keenly
    bene well
    celeriter quickly
    facile easily
    fêliciter happily
    fortiter bravely
    lîberê freely
    longê far
    magnopere greatly
    malê badly
    multum much
    nimis, nimium too, too much, excessively
    parum little
    pulchrê beautifully
    sapienter wisely, more, most
    satis enough, sufficiently (also indecl. noun)

    of time / space / sequence
    cito quickly
    crâs tomorrow
    deinde thereupon, next, then
    diû for a long time
    heri yesterday
    hodiê today
    iam now, already; soon
    ibi there
    iterum again, a second time
    numquam never
    nunc now, at present
    nûper recently
    olim at that time, once, formerly; in the future
    prîmum in the first place
    prius before, earlier, previously
    prôtinus immediately
    quondam formerly, once
    saepe often
    semper always
    tum then, at that time, thereupon

    interrogative adverbs
    cur why
    -ne (enclitic interrogative, marks question when attached to first word in clause)
    quam how (+ adj. or adv.)?
    quandô when
    quârê wherefore, why
    ubi where?

    exclamatory interjections
    quam how (+ adj. or adv.)!

Conjunctions  

    co-ordinating conjunctions (linking words, phrases, or clauses at the same level of syntax)
    at but [emphatic; links full clauses only]
    atque, ac and, and also, and even
    aut (aut . . . aut) or (either . . . or)
    autem however, moreover (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    enim for, in fact, truly (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    et (et...et) and (both...and)
    igitur therefore, consequently (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    itaque and so, therefore (links full clauses only)
    nam for (links full clauses only)
    neque, nec and not, nor (neque. . . neque / nec. . . nec = neither . . .nor)
    quam than (w/ comparatives)
    -que (enclitic) and
    sed but

    subordinating conjunctions (introducing dependent clauses)
    dum while, as long as, at the same time that [+ indic.]; until [+subj.]
    nisi if. . . not, unless; except
    quod because
    quoniam since, because
    if
    ubi where, when
    unde whence, from what or which place, from which, from where


Prepositions

    + ablative
    â/ ab away from, from; by (personal agent, use with passive verbs)
    cum with (as prefix - com-, con-, cor-, col-, co- = together)
    from, concerning, about
    ex / ê out of, from; by reason of, on account of
    prô in front of, before, on behalf of, in return for, instead of, as, for
    sine without

    + accusative
    ad to, up to, near to
    ante before, in front of (as adv. = before, previously)
    contrâ against
    inter between, among
    per through, thoroughly, very, completely (as prefix: per, pel-)
    post after, behind (also a prefix)
    propter on account of, because of
    trans across
    ultrâ on the other side, beyond (as adverb = beyond)

    + ablative or accusative
    in in, on (+ abl.); into, onto, toward, against (+ acc. w/ motion)
    sub under (+ abl. with verbs denoting no change of place; + acc. with verbs of
    motion)


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