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Latin Reference Texts

The "Required" Vocabulary in Wheelock Chapters 1-40

NOTE: Mirrored from course materials from a course at the University of Chicago Department of Classics which are no longer available online.

The following list contains all the vocabulary that you will be required to learn by the time you finish Chapter 40 in Wheelock's Latin (that is, the items that appear in the lists at the end of each chapter, not the supplementary vocabulary given with the sentences in "Practice and Review" and "Sententiae Antiquae"). The list is subdivided according to parts of speech (Verbs, Nouns, etc.), and each part of speech is further subdivided according to certain characteristic features (the conjugations, in the case of verbs; the declensions in the case of nouns and adjectives, etc.).

I have tried, in addition, to gather words in groups that will help your memorization: for example, if you cannot immediately recall that the 3rd principal part of legô is lêgî, you might nonetheless recall that you reviewed it in the same company as other 3rd conjugation verbs that form the perfect stem by lengthening the root vowel (e.g., agô > êgî, and so on).

By using the "Find" function on your browser you can also use the list as both an English-to-Latin dictionary and (if you remember the long marks over the Latin vowels!) a Latin-to-English dictionary.

(This resource is based upon a wordlist compiled by Blair Haarlow, October 1995-March 1996. It has been sorted according to grammatical categories and converted by HTML by Bob Kaster.)

Table of Contents

  • Verbs: 1st Conjugation | 2nd Conjugation | 3rd Conjugation | 4th Conjugation | Irregular and Defective Verbs
  • Nouns: 1st Declension | 2nd Declension | 3rd Declension | 4th Declension | 5th Declension | Indeclinable Nouns
  • Pronouns : Personal | Demonstrative and Intensive | Relative and Interrogative | Indefinite
  • Adjectives: 1st and 2nd Declension | 3rd Declension | Indeclinable Adjectives
  • Adverbs
  • Conjunctions: Co-ordinating | Subordinating
  • Prepositions: + ablative | + accusative | + ablative or accusative
  • Verbs


    First Conjugation

    perfect marked by -âvî
    amô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to love, like
    ambulô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to walk
    appellô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to call, name
    cênô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to dine
    cogitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to think, ponder, consider, plan
    conservô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to preserve, maintain (stronger form of servo)
    creô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to create
    culpô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to blame, censure
    cûrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to care for, attend to, heal, cure, take care
    dêdicô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to dedicate
    dêlectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to delight, charm, please
    dêmonstrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to point out, show
    dêsiderô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to desîre, long for, miss
    dubitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to doubt, hesitate
    êducô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to bring up, educate
    errô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to wander, err, go astray, mistaken
    exspectô -âre, -âvî, -âtum look (out) for, expect, await
    explicô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to unfold, explain, spread out, deploy
    fatigo, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to weary, tire out
    imperô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to give orders to, command (+ dat.)
    invîtô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to invite, summon
    laborô,-âre, -âvî, -âtum to labor, be in distress
    laudô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to praise
    lîberô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to free, liberate
    libô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to pur a libation, to pour ritually, to sip or sample
    mutô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to change, alter; exhcange
    narrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to tell, report, narrate
    navigô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to sail, navigate
    necô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to murder, kill
    negô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to deny, say that . . . not
    nuntiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to announce, report, relate
    oblectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to please, amuse, delight; pass time pleasantly
    oppugnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to fight against, attack, assault, assail
    ornô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to equip, furnish, adorn
    orô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to speak, plead; beg, beseech, entreat
    parô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to prepâre, provide, get, obtain
    pernoctô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to spend or pass the night
    probô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to test, approve, recommend
    pronuntiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to proclaim, announce, declaim, pronounce
    pugnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to fight
    putô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to reckon, suppose, judge, think, imagine
    recitô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to recite, read aloud
    recreô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to restore, revive, refresh, cheer
    recûsô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to refuse
    rogô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to ask
    satiô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to satisfy, sate
    serênô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to make clear, brighten, cheer up, soothe
    servô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to preserve, save, keep, guard
    spectô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to look at, see
    spêrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to hope for, hope (+ fut. infin. in indirect statement)
    superô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to be above, surpass; overcome, conquer
    tolerô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to bear endure
    vîtô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to avoid, shun
    vocô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum to call, summon

    -âvî lacking as marker of perfect
    adiuvô, adiuvâre, adiûvî, adiûtum to help, aid
    dô, dare, dedî, datum to give, offer
    iuvô, iuvâre, iûvî, iûtum to help, aid, assist, please
    praestô, praestare, praestitî, praestitum to excel; exhibit, show, offer, supply, furnish
    stô, stare, stetî, statum to stand, stand still, firm

    deponent verbs
    arbitror, arbitrârî, arbitrâtus sum to judge, think
    conor, conârî, conâtus sum to try, attempt
    for, fâri, fâtus sum to speak (prophetically) , foretell, talk
    hortor, hortârî, hortâtus sum to encourage, urge
    miror, mirârî, mirâtus sum to marvel at, admîre, wonder
    opinor, opinârî, opinâtus sum to suppose
    peregrinor, peregrinârî, peregrinâtus sum to travel abroad, wander
    rusticor, rusticârî, rusticâtus sum to live in the country

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    Second Conjugation


    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    careô, carêre, caruî, caritûrus to be without, be deprived of, want, lack; be free from (+ abl.)
    contineô, continêre, continuî, contentum to hold together, contain, keep, enclose, restrain
    dêbeô, dêbêre, dêbuî, dêbitum to owe: ought, must
    dêleô, dêlêre, dêlêvî, dêlêtum to destroy, wipe out, erase
    doceô, docêre, docuî, doctum to teach
    doleô, dolêre, doluî, dolitûrum to grieve, suffer, hurt, give pain
    egeô, egêre, egui to need, lack, want (+ abl. or gen.)
    expleô, explêre, explevî, explêtum to fill, fill up, complete
    habeô, habêre, habuî, habitum to have, hold, possess, consider, regard
    iaceô, iacêre, iacuî to lie, lie prostrate, lie dead
    licer, licêre, licuit it is permitted, one may; (+ infin. + dat.; impersonal)
    misceô, miscêre, miscuî, mixtum to mix
    moneô, monêre, monuî, monitum to remind, advise, warn
    noceô, nocêre, nocuî, nocitum to do harm to, harm, injure (+ dat.)
    oportet, oportêre, oportuit it is proper, necessary, right [impersonal verb]
    pareô, parêre, paruî to be obedient to, obey (+ dat.)
    pateô, patêre, patuî to be open, lie open, be accessible, be evident
    placeô, placêre, placuî, placitum to be pleasing to, please (+ dat.)
    praebeô, praebêre, praebuî, praebitum to offer provide
    prohibeô, prohibêre, prohibuî, prohibitum to keep (back), prevent, hinder, restrain, prohibit
    studeô, studêre, studuî to be eager for, study (+ dat.)
    taceô, tacêre, tacuî, tacitum to be silent, leave unmentioned
    teneô, tenêre, tenuî, tentum to hold, keep, possess; restrain
    terreô, terrêre, teruî, territum to frighten, terrify
    timeô, timêre, timuî to fear, to be afraid of, be afraid
    valeô, valêre, valuî, valitûrum to be strong, have power, be well

    perfect marked by -sî
    iubeô, iubêre, iussî, iussum to bid, order, command
    maneô, manêre, mansî, mansum to remain, stay (behind) abide, continue
    persuâdeô, -suâdêre, -suâsî, -suâsum to make sweet to, persuade (+ dat.)
    remaneô, remanêre, remansî, remansum to remain, stay (behind) abide, continue
    rideô, ridêre, rîsî, risum to laugh, laugh at
    subrideô, -ridêre, -risî, -risum to smile upon

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    foveô, fovêre, fôvî, fôtum to cherish
    invideô, invidêre, invîdî, invîsum to look at with envy, envy, be jealous of
    moveô, movêre, môvî, môtum to move; arouse, affect
    sedeô, sedêre, sêdî, sessum to sit
    videô, vidêre, vîdî, vîsum to see; observe, understand (pass. = videor, vidêrî, vîsus, vîsus sum = to be seen , seem, appear)

    no vowel-shift or tense-marker in the perfect
    respondeô, respondêre, repondî, respônsum to answer

    semi-deponent verbs
    audeô, audêre, ausus sum to dare
    gaudeô, guadêre, gavîsus sum to be glad, rejoice
    soleô, solêre, solitus sum to be accustomed

    deponent verbs
    fateor, fatêrî, fassus sum to confess, admit
    vereor, verêrî, veritus sum to respect, reverence, fear, be afraid of

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    Third Conjugation


    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    alô, alere, aluî, altum to nourish, support, sustain, increase, cherish
    anteponô, -ponere, -posuî, positum to put before, prefer
    cognôscô, cognôscere, cognôvî, cognitum to become aquainted with, learn, recognize; perf. know
    cupiô, cupere, cupîvî, cupîtum to desîre, wish, long for
    êripiô, êripere, êripuî, êreptum to snatch away, take away; rescue
    exponô, exponere, exposuî, expositum to set forth, explain, expose
    ignôscô, ignôscere, ignôvî, ignôtum to grant pardon to, forgive (+ dat.)
    metuô, metuere, metuî to fear, dread
    minuô, minuere, minuî, minûtum to lessen, diminish
    petô, petere, petîvî, petîtum to seek, aim at, beg, beseech
    ponô, ponere, posuî, positum to put, place set
    quaerô, quaerere, quaesîvî, quaesîtum to seek, look for, strive for, ask, inquire, inquire into
    rapiô, rapere, rapuî, raptum to seize, snatch, carry away
    recognôscô, -nôscere, -nôvî, -nitum to recognize, recollect
    requîrô, requîsîvî, requîsîtum to seek, ask for, miss, need, require
    requiêscô, -quiêscere, -quiêvî, -quiêtum to rest
    sapiô, sapere, sapuî to have good taste; have good sense, be wise

    perfect marked by -sî (sometimes disguised)
    accêdô, accêdere, accessî, accessum to come (to), approach
    âmittô, âmittere, âmîsî, âmissum to lose, let go
    admittô, admittere, admîsî, amissum to admit, receive, let in
    carpô, carpere, carpsî, carptum to harvest, pluck, seize
    cêdô, cêdere, cessî, cessum to go, withdraw; yield to , grant, submit
    committô, committere, commîsî, committum entrust, commit (with dir. object and dative)
    cônsûmô, cônsûmere, cônsûmpsî, cônsûmptum to consume, use up
    contemnô, -temnere, -tempsî, -temptum to despise, condemn
    dîcô, dîcere, dîxî, dictum to say tell, speak; name, call
    dîligô, dîligere, dîlêxî, dîlêctum to esteem, love
    discêdô, discêdere, discessî, discessum to go away, depart
    dûcô, dûcere, dûxî, ductum to lead; consider, regard; prolong
    fluô, fluere, flûxî, fluxum to flow
    gerô, gerere, gessî, gestum to carry, carry on, manage, conduct, perfrom
    intellegô, intellegere, intellexî, intellêctum to understand
    iungô, iungere, iûnxî, iûnctum to join
    mittô, mittere, mîsî, missum to send, let go
    neglegô, neglegere, neglêxî, neglêctum to neglect, disregard
    nûbô, nûbere, nûpsî, nûptum to cover, veil; marry (+ dat.)
    opprimô, opprimere, oppressî, oppressum to supress, overwhelm, overpower, check
    premô, premere, pressî, pressum to press, press hard, pursue
    prômittô, prômittere, prômîsî, prômissum to send forth; promise
    regô, regere, rêxî, rêctum to rule, guide direct
    scrîbô, scrîbere, scrîpsî, scrîptum to write, compose
    surgô, surgere, surrexî, surrêctum to get up, arise
    trahô, trahere, trâxî, tractum to draw, drag, derive
    vîvô, vîvere, vîxî, vîctum to live

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    accipiô, accipere, accêpî, acceptum to take, receive, accept
    agô, agere, êgî, actum to drive, lead, dô, act
    capiô, capere, cêpî, captum to take, capture, seize, get
    cernô, cernere, crêvî, crêtum to distinguish, discern, perceive
    côgô, côgere, coêgî, coâctum to drive or bring together, force, compel
    contundô, -tundere, -tûdî, -tûsum to beat, crush, bruise, destroy
    crescô, crescere, crêvî, crêtum to increase
    dêcernô, dêcernere, dêcrêvî, dêcrêtum to decree
    êiciô, êicere, êiêcî, êiectum to throw out, drive out
    excipiô, excipere, excêpî, exceptum to take out, except; take, receive, capture
    exigô, exigere, exêgî, exactum to drive out,force out, exact, drive through, complete, perfect
    faciô, facere, fêcî, factum to make, do, accomplish
    fugiô, fugere, fûgî, fugitum to flee, hurray away, avoid, shun
    iaciô, iacere, iêcî, iactum to throw, hurl
    incipiô, incipere, incêpî, inceptum to begin
    interficiô, -ficere, -fêcî, -fectum to kill, murder
    legô, legere, lêgî, lêctum to pick out, choose; read
    patefaciô, patefacere, patefêcî, patefactum to make open, open; disclose, expose
    recipiô, recipere, recêpî, receptum to take back, regain, admit, receive
    relinquô, relinquere, relîquî, relictum to leave behind, leave, abandon, desert
    suscipiô, suscipere, suscêpî, susceptum to undertake
    vincô, vincere, vîcî, victum to conquer, overcome

    perfect marked by reduplication of root
    cadô, cadere, cecidî, casum to fall
    condô, condere, condidî, conditum to put together or into, store; found, establish [a compound of do, dare]
    credô, credere, credidî, creditum to believe (+ acc.), trust (+ dat.) [a compound of do, dare]
    currô, currere, cucurrî, cursum to run, rush, move quickly
    discô, discere, didicî to learn
    parcô, parcere, pepercî, parsûrum to be lenient to, spare (+ dat.)
    pellô, pellere, pepulî, pulsum to strike, push, drive out, banish
    tangô, tangere, tetigî, tactum to touch
    tradô, tradere, tradidî, traditum to give over, surrender, hand down, transmit, teach [a compoundof do, dare]
    vendô, vendere, vendidî, venditum to sell [a compound of do, dare]

    no vowel-shift or tense-marker in the perfect
    bibô, bibere, bibî to drink
    comprehendô, -hendere, -hendî, -hensum to grasp, seize, arrest; comprehend, understand
    contendô, contendere, contendî, contentum to strive, struggle, contend; hasten
    dêfendô, dêfendere, dêfendî, dêfensum to ward off, defend, protect
    occidô, occidere, occidî, occâsum to fall down; die, set
    ostendô, ostendere, ostendî, ostentum to exhibit, show, display
    suspendô, -pendere, -pendî, -pensum to hang up, suspend, interrupt
    vertô, vertere, vertî, versum to turn; change (avertô, turn away; revertô, turn back)

    deponent verbs
    êgredior, êgredî, êgressus sum to go out
    loquor, loquî, loctus sum to say speak, tell
    morior, morî, mortuus sum to die
    nascor, nascî, nâtus sum to be born; spring forth, arise
    patior, patî, passus sum to suffer, endure, permit
    proficîscor, proficîscî, profectus sum to set out, start
    queror, querî, questus sum to complain, lament
    sequor, sequî, secûtus sum to follow
    ûtor, ûtî, ûsus sum to use; enjoy, experience (+ abl.)

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    Fourth Conjugation


    perfect marked by -uî/-vî
    audiô, audîre, audîvî, audîtum to hear, listen to
    dormiô, dormîre, dormîvî, dormîtum to sleep
    impediô, impedîre, impedîvî, impedîtum to impede, hinder, prevent
    molliô, mollîre, mollîvî, mollîtum to soften; make calm or less hostile
    nesciô, nescîre, nescîvî, nescîtum not to know, be ignorant
    sciô, scîre, scîvî, scîtum to know
    serviô, servîre, servîvî, servîtum to be a slave to, serve (+ dat.)

    perfect marked by -sî
    sentiô, sentîre, sensî, sensum to feel, perceive, think, experience

    perfect marked by lengthened root-vowel
    inveniô, invenîre, invênî, inventum to come upon, find
    veniô, venîre, vênî, ventum to come

    reperiô, reperîre, repperî, repertum to find, discover, learn, get

    deponent verbs
    experior, experîrî, expertus sum to try, test, experience
    molior, molîrî, molîtus sum to work at, build, undertake, plan

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    Irregular and Defective Verbs


    adferô, adferre, attulî, allâtum to bring to
    ait, aiunt he says, they say
    coepî, coepisse, coeptum began; used only in the perfect system (incipio)
    conferô, conferre, contulî, collâtum to bring together, compare
    eô, îre, iî, îtum to go (and all compounds)
    ferô, ferre, tulî, lâtum to bear, carry, bring; suffer endure, tolerate; say
    fîô, fiêrî, factus sum to occur, happen, become; be made, be done
    inquit he says or said after direct quotation
    malô, malle, maluî to want (something) more, instead; prefer
    nolô, nolle, noluî to not . . . wish, be unwilling
    ôdî, ôdisse, ôsûrum to hate
    offerô, offerre, obtulî, oblâtum to offer
    possum, posse, potuî to be able, can could, have power
    referô, referre, rettulî, relâtum to carry back, bring back; repeat, answer, report
    sum, esse, fuî, futûrum to be, exist
    tollô, tollere, sustulî, sublâtum to raise, lift up; take away, remove, destroy
    volô, velle, voluî to wish, want, be willing, will

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    Nouns


    First Declension


    feminine
    adulescentia, -ae youth
    amîca, -ae friend
    amîcitia, -ae friendship
    anima, -ae soul, spirit
    aqua, -ae water
    Asia, -ae Asia
    casa, -ae house
    causa, -ae cause, reason; case, situation (abl. w/ preceeding gen. = for sake of, on account of)
    cêna, -ae dinner
    clementia, -ae clemency, mercy, kindness
    copia, -ae abundance, supply
    culpa, -ae fault, blame
    cûra, -ae care, attention, caution, anxiety
    custôdia, -ae protection, custody; pl. guards
    discipula, -ae learner, pupil
    fâbula, -ae story, tale; play
    fâma, -ae rumor, report; fame reputation
    familia, -ae household, family
    fêmina, -ae woman
    fenestra, -ae window
    fîlia, -ae daughter
    fôrma, -ae form, shape; beauty
    fortûna, -ae fortune, luck
    Graecia, -ae Greece
    gratia, -ae gratitude, favor (gratias agere + dative = to thank)
    hasta, -ae spear
    hôra, -ae hour, time
    iânua, -ae door
    iniûria, -ae injustice, injury, wrong
    insula, -ae island
    invidia, -ae ill-will, envy, jealousy, hatred
    îra, -ae anger
    Italia, -ae Italy
    lacrima, -ae tear
    lingua, -ae tongue; language
    littera, -ae a letter of the alphabet (in plur. = a letter (epsitle), literature)
    lûna, -ae moon
    medica, -ae doctor
    memoria -ae memory, recollection (memoriâ tenêre = "remember")
    mênsa, -ae table
    meta, -ae turning post (on a race-course), goal
    mora, -ae delay, pause, hesitation
    nâta, -ae daughter
    nâtûra, -ae nature
    patientia, -ae suffering, patience, endurance
    patria, -ae fatherland, native land, country
    pecûnia, -ae money
    philosophia, -ae philosphy
    poena, -ae penalty, punishment
    porta, -ae gate, entrance
    puella, -ae girl
    regîna, -ae queen
    Rôma, -ae Rome
    rosa, -ae rose
    sapientia, -ae wisdom
    scientia, -ae knowledge
    sententia, -ae feeling, thought, opinion, vote, sentence
    stella, -ae star
    terra, -ae earth, ground, land, country
    Trôia, -ae Troy
    turba, -ae uproar, disturbance
    via, -ae way, road, street
    victôria, -ae victory
    vîta, -ae life; mode of life


    feminine, plural only
    Athênae, -ârum Athens
    dîvitiae, - ârum riches, wealth
    insidiae, - ârum ambush, plot, treachery
    Syracûsae, - ârum Syracuse


    masculine
    agricola, -ae farmer
    nauta, -ae sailor
    poêta, -ae poet

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    Second Declension


    masculine nouns in -(i)us
    animus, -î soul, spirit, mind (animi, -orum high spirits, pride, courage)
    annus, -î year
    coniûrâtus, -î conspirator
    deus, deî god (dî = nom. pl., dîs = abl. pl. : deî deîs common in later Latin)
    digitus, -î finger, toe
    discipulus, -î learner, pupil
    dominus, -î master, lord
    elephantus, -î elephant
    equus, -î horse
    fîlius, -ii son
    Graecus, -î a Greek
    humus, -î ground, earth (with the locative form humî, "on the ground")
    libellus, -î little book
    locus, -î place (locî, -ôrum = passages in literature; loca, -ôrum [n.] = places)
    lûdus, -î game, sport; school
    medicus, -î doctor
    modus, -î measure, bound, limit; manner, method, mode, way
    morbus, -î disease, sickness
    mundus, -î world, universe
    nâsus, -î nose
    numerus, -î number
    oculus, -î eye
    philosophus, -î philosopher
    populus, -î the people, a people, a nation
    servus, -î slave
    somnus, -î sleep
    tyrannus, -î absolute ruler, tyrant
    ventus, -î wind
    vîcînus, -î neighbor
    vulgus, -î the common people, mob, rabble


    masculine nouns in -(e)r
    ager, agrî field, farm
    liber, librî book
    magister, magistrî schoolmaster, teacher, master
    puer, puerî boy
    vir, virî man, hero


    neuter nouns in -(i)um
    aedificium, -iî building, structure
    argûmentum, -î proof, evidence, argument
    auxilium, -iî aid, help
    bellum, -î war
    beneficium, -iî benefit, kindness; favor
    caelum, -î sky heaven
    consilium, -iî plan, purpose, counsel, advice, judgement, wisdom
    dônum, -î gift, present
    exitium, -iî destruction, ruin
    exsilium, -iî exile, banishment
    factum, -î deed, act, achievement
    fâtum, -î fate, death
    ferrum, -î iron; sword
    forum, -î marketplace, forum
    imperium, -iî power to command, supreme power, authority, command, control
    ingenium, -iî nature, innate talent
    initium, -iî beginning, commencement
    iûdicium, -iî judgement, decision, opinion; trial
    monumentum, -î monument
    odium, -iî hatred
    officium, -iî duty, service
    osculum, -î kiss
    otium, -iî leisure, peace
    perfugium, -iî refuge, shelter
    perîculum, -î danger, risk
    praemium, -iî reward, prize
    principium, -iî beginning
    remedium, -iî cure, remedy
    saxum, -î rock, stone
    signum, -î sign, signal, indication, seal
    sôlâcium, -iî comfort, relief
    speculum, -î mirror
    studium, -iî eagerness, zeal, pursuit, study
    verbum, -î word
    vinculum, -î bond, chain, fetter
    vînum, -î wine
    vitium, -iî fault, crime, vice


    neuter, plural form only
    arma, armôrum arms, weapons (plural)

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    Third Declension


    feminine nouns in -tâs
    aestâs, -tâtis summer
    cîvitâs, -tâtis state, citizenship
    cupiditâs, -tâtis desire, longing, passion, cupidity, avarice
    dignitâs, -tâtis merit, prestige, dignity
    lîbertâs, -tâtis liberty
    paupertâs, -tâtis poverty, humble, circumstances
    probitâs, -tâtis uprightness, honesty
    tempestâs, -tâtis season, weather, bad weather = storm
    vêritâs, -tâtis truth
    voluptâs, -tâtis pleasure

    feminine nouns in -io
    dêlectâtio, -tionis delight, pleasure, enjoyment
    occâsio, -sionis occasion, opportunity
    ôrâtio, -tionis speech
    ratio, -tionis reckoning, account; reason, judgement, consideration
    remissio, -sionis letting go, release; relaxation

    feminine nouns in -ûs
    salûs, salûtis health, safety; greeting
    senectûs, -tûtis old age
    servitûs, -tûtis servitude, slavery
    virtûs, -tûtis manliness, courage, excellence, character, worth, virtue

    feminine nouns in -x
    arx, arcis stronghold, citadel
    lêctrix, lêctricis reader
    lêx, lêgis law, statute
    lûx, lûcis light
    pâx, pâcis peace
    vôx, vôcis voice, word


    feminine nouns denoting female persons
    mâter, mâtris mother
    mulier, mulieris woman
    parens, parentis parent (of common gender-can be either masc. or fem.)
    soror, sorôris sister
    uxor, uxôris wife
    virgô, virginis maiden, virgin


    miscellaneous feminine nouns
    arbor, arbôris tree
    Cathâgô, Carthâginis Carthage
    cupîdô, cupidinis desire, passion
    laus, laudis praise, plory, fame
    ops, opis help, aid; pl. power, resources, wealth
    plebs, plebis the common people, populace, plebeians
    vîs, - force; strength (in pl.) [an irregular noun: see Wheelock, pp. 89-90]

    masculine nouns in -or
    amor, amôris love
    auctor, auctôris increaser, author, originator
    audêtor, -tôris listener, (member of an) audience
    dolor, dolôris pain, grief
    honor, honôris honor, esteem; public office
    imperâtor, imperâtôris general, commander-în-chief
    labor, labôris labor, work, toil; a work, production
    lêctor, lêctôris reader
    orâtor, orâtôris orator, speaker
    rûmor, rûmôris rumor, gossip
    sator, satôris sower, planter; begetter, father; founder
    scrîptor, scrîptôris author, writer
    timor, timôris fear

    masculine nouns denoting (generally) male persons
    adulêscêns. adulêscêntis young man
    Caesar, Caesaris Caesar
    cônsul, cônsulis consul
    dux, ducis leader, guide; commander, general
    frâter, frâtris brother
    fûr, fûris thief
    iûdex, iûdicis judge, juror
    mîles, mîlitis soldier
    nepôs, nepôtis grandson, descendant
    pater, patris father
    rêx, rêgis king
    sacerdôs, sacerdôtis priest

    miscellaneous masculine nouns
    as, assis an as (small copper coin: "penny" or "farthing" sometimes are appropriate)
    homô, hominis human being, man
    môns, montis mountain
    môs, môris habit, custom, manner; character (pl.)
    nêmô no one (the oblique cases forms in common use are: nûllîus, gen. [for nêminis]; nêminî, dat.; nêmen, acc.; nûllô or nûllâ, abl. [for nêmine])
    pês, pedis foot
    sâl, salis salt; wit
    sôl, sôlis sun
    vesper, vesperis evening; evening star

    neuter nouns in -en, -inis
    carmen, carminis song, poem
    flûmen, flûminis river
    lîmen, lîminis threshold
    nômen, nôminis name

    neuter nouns in -us, -eris
    genus, generis origin, kind, sort, class
    opus, operis a work, task; deed, accomplishment
    scelus, sceleris evil deed, crime, sin, wickedness
    sîdus, sîderis constellation, star
    vulnus, vulneris wound

    neuter nouns in -us, -oris
    corpus, corporis body, corpse
    lîtus, lîtoris shore, coast
    pectus, pectoris chest, heart
    tempus, temporis time; occasion, opportunity

    miscellaneous neuter nouns
    aes, aeris bronze
    caput, capitis head, leader; beginning; life; heading; chapter
    iter, itineris road, route, journey
    iûs, iûris right, justice, law
    ôs, ôris mouth, face, cheeks
    rûs, rûris the country, countryside (with the locative forms rûrî or rûre, "in the countryside")


    i-stems
    feminine
    ars, artis art, skill
    auris, auris ear
    gens, gentis clan, race, nation, people
    mors, mortis death
    nâvis, nâvis ship, boat
    nox, noctis night
    nûbes, nûbis cloud
    pars, partis part, share; direction
    urbs, urbis city
    vês force, violence; plural vêrês, strength (defective in the singular, lacking the genitive and dative)
    masculine
    cîvis, cîvis citizen
    fînis, fînis end, limit, boudary, purpose; territory (plu.)
    hostis, hostis enemy; the enemy (plu.)
    ignis, ignis fire
    neuter
    animal, animâlis animal
    exemplar, exemplâris example, model
    mare, maris sea
    moenia, moenium (plural only) walls of the city

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    Fourth Declension


    masculine
    cursus, cursûs running, race; course
    fructus, fructûs fruit, profit, enjoyment
    metus, metûs fear, dread anxiety
    senâtus, senâtûs senate
    sensus, sensûs feeling, sense
    spiritus, spiritûs breath, breathing; spirit, soul
    transitus, transitûs passing over, transit, transition
    versus, versûs line of verse
    vultus, vultûs countenance, face

    feminine
    domus, domûs house, home (this noun also has the 2nd decl. gen. sing. form domî, the abl. form domô ["from home"], and the locative form domi ["at home])
    manus, manûs hand, band; handwriting

    neuter
    cornû, cornûs horn
    genû, genûs knee

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    Fifth Declension


    feminine
    fidês, fideî faith, trust, trustworthiness, fidelity, promise, guarantee, protection
    rês, reî thing, matter, business, affair (rês publica, reî publicae = commonwealth, republic
    spês, speî hope

    masculine
    diês, diêî day

    Indeclinable Nouns
    nihil nothing (+ partitive gen. = "nothing of . . ." = "no . . .")
    satis enough (+ partitive gen. = "a sufficiency of . . ." = "enough . . .")
    all infinitives

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    Pronouns


    Personal
    ego, meî I
    tû, tuî you (sing.)
    nôs, nostrum / nostrî we
    vôs, vestrum / vestrî you (plur.)
    is, ea, id he, she, it (also serves as a weak demonstrative, "this that," especially in correlation with relative clauses)
    --, suî, sibi, sê, sê him/her/itself (reflexive 3rd person pronoun: Chapter 13)

    Demonstrative and Intensive
    hic, haec, hoc this man / woman / thing [right here] (also serves as an adjective)
    ille, illa, illud that man / woman / thing [over there] (also serves as an adjective)
    iste, ista, istud that man / woman / thing [near you / of yours], that no-good, rotten man / woman / thing (also serves as an adjective)
    ipse, ipsa, ipsum he himself, she herself, it itself (also serves as an adjective)
    îdem, eadem, idem the same man / woman / thing (also serves as an adjective)

    Relative and Interrogative
    quî, quae, quod who / which
    quis, quid who? / what? (adjectival form = quî, quae, quod)

    Indefinite
    aliquis, aliquid someone / something (adjectival form = aliquî, aliquae, aliquod)
    quîdam, quaedam, quiddam a certain man / woman / thing (adjectival form = quîdam, quaedam, quoddam)
    quisque, quidque each person / thing
    quisquis, quidquid whoever / whatever

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    Adjectives


    First and Second Declension
    "regular" -us, -a, -um adjectives
    acerbus, -a, -um harsh, bitter, grevious
    adversus, -a, -um opposite, adverse
    aequus, -a, -um level, even; calm; equal, just; favorable
    amîcus, -a, -um friendly
    antîquus, -a, -um ancient, old-time
    avârus, -a, -um greedy, avaricious
    beâtus, -a, -um happy, fortunate, blessed
    caecus, -a, -um blind
    candidus, -a, -um shining, bright, white; beautiful
    cârus, -a, -um dear
    certus, -a, -um definite, fixed, certain, reliable
    clârus, -a, -um clear, bright; renowned, famous, illustrious
    cupidus, -, -um desirous, eager, fond (often + gen.)
    dignus, -a, -um worthy, worthy of (+abl.)
    doctus, -a, -um taught, learned, skilled
    dûrus, -a, -um hard, harsh, rough, stern, unfeeling, hardy, difficult
    firmus, -a, -um firm, strong, reliable
    fortûnâtus, -a, -um lucky, fortunate, happy
    Graecus, -a, -um Greek
    grâtus, -a, -um pleasing, agreeable
    hûmânus, -a, -um pertaining to man, human, humane, kind, refined, cultivated
    idôneus, -a, -um suitable, fit, appropriate
    immôtus, -a, -um unmoved, unchanged, unrelenting
    incertus, -a, -um uncertain, doubtful
    infirmus, -a, -um not strong, weak, feeble
    îrâtus, -a, -um angry
    iûcundus, -a, -um pleasant, delightful, agreeable, pleasing
    iustus, -a, -um just, right, fair
    Latînus, -a, -um Latin
    longus, -a, -um long
    magnanimus, -a, -um great-hearted, brave, magnanimous
    medius, -a, -um middle; used partitively, the middle of
    merus, -a, -um pure, undiluted
    mortuus, -a, -um dead
    novus, -a, -um new; strange
    paucî, -ae, -a few, a few (plural)
    perpetuus, -a, -um perpetual, lasting, uninterrupted, continuous
    plênus, -a, -um full
    pristînus, -a, -um ancient, former, previous
    pudîcus, -a, -um modest, chaste
    quantus, -a, -um how large, how great, how much
    rîdiculus, -a, -um laughable, ridiculus
    Rômânus, -a, -um Roman
    salvus, -a, -um safe, sound
    sânus, -a, -um sound, healthy, sane
    secundus, -a, -um second; favorable
    stultus, -a, -um foolish
    superbus, -a, -um arrogant, overbearing, haughty, proud
    tantus, -a, -um so large, so great
    vêrus, -a, -um true, real, proper
    vîvus, -a, -um alive, living
    urbânus, -a, -um of the city, urban, urbane

    possessive adjectives
    meus, -a, -um my
    noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours
    tuus, -a, -um your (sing.)
    vester, vestra, vestrum yours (pl.)
    suus, -a, -um his/her/its/their own (reflexive poss. adj of 3rd per.)

    other 1st-2nd decl. adjectives with masc. nom. sing. in -er
    asper, aspera, asperum rough, harsh
    dexter, dextra, dextrum right, right-handed
    lîber, lîbera, lîberum free
    miser, misera, miserum wretched, miserable, unfortunate
    pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum beautiful, handsome; fine
    sinister, sinistra, sinistrum left, left-handed

    1st-2nd decl. adjectives with gen. sing. in -îus, dat. sing. in -î
    ûllus, -a, -um any
    nûllus, -a, -um not any, no, none
    ûnus, -a, um one
    sôlus, -a, -um alone, only, the only
    neuter, neutra, neutrum not either, neither
    alter, altera, alterum the other (of two), second
    uter, utra, utrum either, which (of two)
    tôtus, -a, -um whole, entire
    alius, -a, -um (an)other

    1st-2nd decl. adjectives with irregular comparative and superlative forms
    bonus, -a, -um good, kind [comp.: melior, melius; superl.: optimus, -a, -um]
    magnus, -a, -um large, great, important [comp.: maior, maius; superl.: maximus, -a, -um]
    malus, -a, -um bad, wicked, evil [comp.: peior, peius; superl.: pessimus, -a, -um]
    multus, -a, -um sing.: much, a lot; plur.: many [comp.: plûres, plûra; superl.: plûrimus, -a, -um]
    parvus, -a, -um small, little [comp.: minor, minus; superl.: minimus, -a, -um]
    superus, -a, -um above, upper [comp.: superior, superius; superl.: suprêmus, -a, -um and summus, -a, -um]
    Note also:
    prîmus, -a, -um first, foremost, chief, principal [this form is a superlative, corresponding to the comparative degree prior = "prior, earlier, previous"; there is no positive]
    ultimus, -a, -um farthest, extreme; last, final [like primusthis is a superlative form; comp. = ulterior / "farther", no positive degree]

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    Third Declension
    adjectives with 3 nom. sing. endings
    âcer, âcris, âcre sharp, keen, eager, severe, fierce
    celer, celeris, celere swift, quick, rapid

    adjectives with 2 nom. sing. endings
    brevis, -e short, small, breif
    commûnis, -e common, general
    dulcis, -e sweet, pleasant, agreeable
    fortis, -e strong, brave
    levis, -e light, slight, trivial, easy
    lîberâlis, -e characteristic / worthy of a free person, decent, liberal, generous
    mediocris, -e ordinary, moderate, mediocre
    mîrâbilis, -e amazing, wondrous, remarkable
    mortâlis, -e mortal
    omnis, -e every, all
    suâvis, -e sweet
    sublîmis, -e elevated, lofty, heroic, noble
    tâlis, -e such, of such a sort
    tristis, -e sad, sorrowful; joyless, grim, severe
    turpis, -e ugly, shameful, base, disgraceful
    ûtilis, -e useful, advantageous
    NB: 2-ending adjectives with irregular superlative formation
    facilis, -e easy, agreeable [superl: facillimus, -a, -um]
    difficilis, -e hard, difficult, troublesome [superl: difficillimus, -a, -um]
    similis, -e similar (to), like, resembling (+gen. or dat.) [superl: simillimus, -a, -um]
    dissimilis, -e unlike, different [superl: dissimillimus, -a, -um]
    gracilis, -e slender, thin [superl: gracillimus, -a, -um]
    humilis, -e lowly, humble [superl: humillimus, -a, -um]

    adjectives with 1 nom. sing. ending
    absens, absentis (gen.) absent, away
    dîligens, dîligentis (gen.) diligent, careful
    dîves, dîvitis (gen.) rich (as noun: rich man, magnate)
    fêlix, fêlicis (gen.) lucky, fortunate, happy
    ingens, ingentis (gen.) huge
    pâr, pâris (gen.) equal, like
    pauper, pauperis (gen.) of small means, poor (as noun: pauper)
    potens, potentis (gen.) able, powerful
    princeps, principis (gen.) chief, foremost (as noun: leader / emperor / prince)
    sapiens, sapientis (gen.) wise (as noun: wiseman, philosopher)
    senex, senis (gen.) old, aged (as noun: old man)
    vetus, (gen.) veteris old

    Indeclinable
    necesse necessary, inevitable
    quot how many, as many
    tot so many
    cardinal numbers higher than tres / tria (but note milia, milium = "thousands")

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    Adverbs


    of emphasis / qualification / negation
    etiam even, also
    fortasse perhaps
    ita so, thus
    not (with iussive subjunctive in independent clause)
    nôn not
    quam as . . . as possible (w/ superl.)
    quidem indeed, certainly, at least, even (postpositive)
    quîn indeed, in fact
    quoque also, too
    sic so, thus
    tam so, to such a degree
    tamen nevertheless, still
    tantum only
    vêrô in truth, indeed, to be sure, however

    of quality / quantity
    acriter keenly
    bene well
    celeriter quickly
    facile easily
    fêliciter happily
    fortiter bravely
    fûrtim stealthily, secretly
    libenter with pleasure, gladly
    lîberê freely
    longê far
    magnopere greatly
    malê badly
    multum much
    nimis, nimium too, too much, excessively
    omnîno wholly, entirely, altogether
    parum little
    pulchrê beautifully
    sapienter wisely, more, most
    satis enough, sufficiently (also indecl. noun)

    of time / space / sequence
    cito quickly
    cotidiê daily, every day
    crâs tomorrow
    dêhinc then
    deinde thereupon, next, then
    dênique at least, finally, lastly
    diû for a long time
    foris out of doors, outside
    heri yesterday
    hîc here
    hodiê today
    iam now, already; soon
    ibi there
    iterum again, a second time
    mox soon
    numquam never
    nunc now, at present
    nûper recently
    olim at that time, once, formerly; in the future
    posteâ afterwards
    postrêmum finally, after all, for the last time
    prîmô at first, at the beginning
    prîmum in the first place
    prius before, earlier, previously
    prôtinus immediately
    quondam formerly, once
    repente suddenly
    saepe often
    semel once
    semper always
    tum then, at that time, thereupon
    umquam ever, at any time (in questions or neg. clauses)
    usque all the way up, even, continuously, always

    interrogative adverbs
    cur why
    -ne (enclitic interrogative, marks question when attached to first word in clause)
    nônne interrog. adverb, expected answer = "yes"
    num interrog. adv., expected answer = "no"
    quam how (+ adj. or adv.)?
    quandô when
    quârê wherefore, why
    ubi where?
    unde whence? from where?

    exclamatory interjections
    heu alas, ah
    O oh
    quam how (+ adj. or adv.)!
    vae alas, woe

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    Conjunctions


    co-ordinating conjunctions (linking words, phrases, or clauses at the same level of syntax)
    at but [emphatic; links full clauses only]
    atque, ac and, and also, and even
    aut (aut . . . aut) or (either . . . or)
    autem however, moreover (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    enim for, in fact, truly (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    et (et...et) and (both...and)
    igitur therefore, consequently (postpositive; links full clauses only)
    itaque and so, therefore (links full clauses only)
    nam for (links full clauses only)
    neque, nec and not, nor (neque. . . neque / nec. . . nec = neither . . . nor)
    quam than (w/ comparatives)
    -que (enclitic) and
    sed but
    utrum . . . an whether . . . or [coordinating alternative questions]
    -ve (enclitic) or

    subordinating conjunctions (introducing dependent clauses)
    cum when, since, although [+ subj.]; (precisely) when [+ indic.]
    dum while, as long as, at the same time that [+ indic.]; until [+subj.]
    dummodo provided that, so long as [+ subj.]
    etsî even if, although
    in order that . . . not [purpose]; that . . . not [jussive]; not [fear]
    nisi if. . . not, unless; except
    quasi as if
    quod because
    quoniam since, because
    if
    ubi where, when
    unde whence, from what or which place, from which, from where
    ut as, just as, when [+ indicative]; (in order) to [purpose], (so . . . ) that [result], (beg/persuade/order/urge . . .) to [jussive noun clause], that . . . not [fear]

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    Prepositions


    + ablative
    â/ ab away from, from; by (personal agent, use with passive verbs)
    cum with (as prefix - com-, con-, cor-, col-, co- = together)
    from, concerning, about
    ex / ê out of, from; by reason of, on account of
    prae in front of, before
    prô in front of, before, on behalf of, in return for, instead of, as, for
    sine without

    + accusative
    ad to, up to, near to
    ante before, in front of (as adv. = before, previously)
    apud among, in the presence of, at the house of
    contrâ against
    ergâ toward
    inter between, among
    per through, thoroughly, very, completely (as prefix: per, pel-)
    post after, behind (also a prefix)
    praeter besides, except
    propter on account of, because of
    trans across
    ultrâ on the other side, beyond (as adverb = beyond)

    + ablative or accusative
    in in, on (+ abl.); into, onto, toward, against (+ acc. w/ motion)
    sub under (+ abl. w/ verbs denoting no change of place; + acc. w/ verbs of motion)

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